Borgarna har gasen i botten när de kör mot 2/3-delssamhället

LO, S, Mp, Vp och Handikappförbundet demonstrerade igår på Mynttorget, mot den moderatledda regeringens förslag till sjukförsäkring (SvD). En anonym handläggare skriver i en artikel i Aftonbladet:
-
Den nya ”rehabiliteringskedjan” innebär i förlängningen att många människor faller mellan stolarna eller blir beroende av stöd från socialen.
Som personlig handläggare på försäkringskassan oroas jag av de praktiska konsekvenserna för tusentals människor och för minst hälften av alla de sjukskrivna jag själv handlägger
.
-
Från om med 1 juli i år kommer 10.000 svenskar, som i dag är sjukskrivna, att tvingas att söka socialbidrag och inom snar framtid har 40.000 svenskar förlorat sin ersättning (e.24). Sjukförsäkringen slaktas skriver Ett hjärta RÖTT.
-
Den anonyma handläggaren avslutar sin artikel med: Att sedan varken försäkringskassan, arbetsförmedlingen eller de sociala myndigheterna kommer att klara av sina åtaganden på grund av för liten bemanning kommer ytterligare försämra välfärden för medborgarna.
Vi går i rask marsch mot 2/3-delssamhället utan att någon säger ”halt”.
Snart är det för sent.

5 kommentarer:

Kraxpelax sa...

Olof Plame
Lena Gräns
Cats Falck
Hilding Eek
Makarna Winbergh
Ingvar Heimer
Carl Algernon
Gunnarsson
Milan Valverius
Odd Engström

Med anledning av Henrik Sundholm ställer jag nu den Metakatolska Kristosatanismens Tre Rituella Frågor: till hela den politiskt mediala skitborgarklassen:

http://www.equil.net/?p=545


Hur Du Haft Eldbågen Någon Gång?

Vill Du Ha En Minnestuba?

Hur Många Blixtar finns det?

http://screenfonds.blogspot.com/

För ser ni, Peter Ingestad, Son av Satan, HAN tar minsann inte skit av någon; nej den som ger sig på honom, HAN ger sig på fel kille - HAR NI FÖSTÅTT???



Liberalism i praktiken: förbjud kritik av liberalismen


http://www.flashback.info/showthread.php?t=687374
---

Peter Ingestad:

Det behövs en teoretiskt högklassig kritik av liberalismen. I synnerhet måste den vetenskapligt nationalekonomiska stringensen vara förstklassig.

Det är ett projekt jag vill bidra till, och utgör det allmänna diskussionsämnet för denna tråd som förhoppningsvis får livligt deltagande både för och emot.

Det specifika med denna tråd är den höga intellektuella ambitionsnivån. Korkat blajjande undanbedes. För dumskallarna finns så många alternativa trådar att

hålla sig till.

Jag inleder med en nog så viktig detaljfråga.

Från liberalt håll ifrågasätter man att klyftorna i samhället ökar. Man framhåller att prisutvecklingen för basvaror länge varit gynnsammare än för lyxvaror.

Nu håller ju detdär på och vänder en gång för alla till följd av oljekrisen. Framtiden är praktiskt relevant. Det förflutna är det inte.

Det är den empiriska huvudinvändningen. Sedan hhar vi en analytisk huvudinvändning, nämligen följande.

Från pengarnas fallande mariginalnytta följer nämligen direkt att för höginkomsttagaren måste en större relativ pris- eller realinkomstförändring till för

att generera samma relativa välfärdseffekt som för en låginkomsttagare.

För de verkligt rika är gränsnyttan noll. De konsumerar gratis. Där ÄR pengarna nyttan i sig själv. Där gäller pengar för pengars egen skull.

Enkelt nog. Man bör nog ta och undersöka varför dessa akademiska libbtänkare med så märkvärdig konsekvens förbiser filosofiska och nationalekonomiska

elementa.

(Det renhållningsarbetet blir pionjärens. På "vänsterkanten" förekommer nämligen inget tänkande överhuvudtaget. Det är bara formlöst känsloflumsande om

människosyn och genus och queerteori och solidaritet med HIV-smittade och human flyktingpolitik och globaliseringen ställer oss inför stora utmaningar

(jaha?) och såndär politiskt garanterat ofarligt skitflum.

Men vaddå, den falska vänsterns exponenter tllhör ju SJÄLVA samma politiskt-mediala överklass som de förmenta opponenterna. Där finns en dold

intressegemenskap. På teoretisk nivå förekommer därför bara skenbar motsättning; man ägnar sig å "folkets" vägnar men i eget intresse åt yvigt nattmösseprat.

Det ska vara "polemiskt", men det är bara falskspel alltihop.)

En annan strategisk punkt är frihetsvärdet. Då frågar jag: vad är frihet om inte inbegreppet av de totala reala möjligheterna människan konfronterar i sin

konkreta tillvaro? Har man inga pengar, kan man inte göra någonting, då allting kostar, och man har ingen verklig frihet. Härifrån följer direkt att hen

frihetlig politik implicerar en omfattande välfärdsapparat. Det mesta av den riktning vi kallar "liberalism" är alltså realt rihetsfientlig. Den

ordproduktion som i så engagerade ordalag hävdar motsatsen saknar redig tankegrund.

+++

Peter Ingestad:

Som Sartre var inne på är friheten egentligen oundviklig. Det är ju per definition möjligt att göra allt utom det omöjliga.

Min poäng då är att frihet strängt taget kokar ner till ett utilitaristiskt universalnyttebegrepp. Om vi bortser från frihetens egenvärde blir nämligen

friheten just inget annat än möjlighet att tillägna sig vilket värde som helst.

Intressekonflikt är frihetskonflikt. Vad som väsentligen sker i ett anarkiskt tillstånd av allmänt röveri är att OFFREN berövas sin frihet.

För frihetens maximering och fördelning krävs just en mäktig rättsordning. Inte nödvändigtvis en stark statsmakt, men det ligger nära till hands.

Bo39 träffar alltså huvudet på spiken. Naturens och kulturens frihet är exakt densamma, det är i grund och botten ingen skillnad alls. Frågan är s a s

kvantitativ, inte kvalitativ. Vi diskuterar hur vi kan få mesta möjliga frihet och hur den liberala teorin står sig mot detta allmänbehov.

Ett särfall är radikalliberalismen, eller om man så vill, libertarianismen. Den kräver en överbyggnad av allmän norminternalisering och värdekonsensus för

att fungera. En sådan övergripande överbyggnad av ideologi kan mycket väl tänkas generera en självförstärkande inkomstutjämning med maximering av

frihetssumman som resultat. Den erforderliga dekonstruktionen av liberal teori behöver alltså inte alls med logisk nödvändighet vara destruktiv.

+++

Peter Ingestad:

Som Sartre var inne på är friheten egentligen oundviklig. Det är ju per definition möjligt att göra allt utom det omöjliga.

Min poäng då är att frihet strängt taget kokar ner till ett utilitaristiskt universalnyttebegrepp. Om vi bortser från frihetens egenvärde blir nämligen

friheten just inget annat än möjlighet att tillägna sig vilket värde som helst.

Intressekonflikt är frihetskonflikt. Vad som väsentligen sker i ett anarkiskt tillstånd av allmänt röveri är att OFFREN berövas sin frihet.

För frihetens maximering och fördelning krävs just en mäktig rättsordning. Inte nödvändigtvis en stark statsmakt, men det ligger nära till hands.

Bo39 träffar alltså huvudet på spiken. Naturens och kulturens frihet är exakt densamma, det är i grund och botten ingen skillnad alls. Frågan är s a s

kvantitativ, inte kvalitativ. Vi diskuterar hur vi kan få mesta möjliga frihet och hur den liberala teorin står sig mot detta allmänbehov.

Ett särfall är radikalliberalismen, eller om man så vill, libertarianismen. Den kräver en överbyggnad av allmän norminternalisering och värdekonsensus för

att fungera. En sådan övergripande överbyggnad av ideologi kan mycket väl tänkas generera en självförstärkande inkomstutjämning med maximering av

frihetssumman som resultat. Den erforderliga dekonstruktionen av liberal teori behöver alltså inte alls med logisk nödvändighet vara destruktiv.

+++

Henrik Sundholm:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Då frågar jag: vad är frihet om inte inbegreppet av de totala reala möjligheterna människan konfronterar i sin konkreta tillvaro?

Frihet är frihet från andra människors angreppsvåld. Vare sig mer eller mindre.

+++

Henrik Sundholm:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Har man inga pengar, kan man inte göra någonting, då allting kostar, och man har ingen verklig frihet.

Jag har skrivit en ganska ordentlig vederläggning av konceptet "positiva rättigheter" här: http://www.equil.net/?p=545

+++


Realiszt:

Haha! Kraxelpax och Bo39 debatterar! Som man frågar får man svar, heter det. Kan man få se en ordentlig tvekamp? Vore något för 100 höjdare eller så...


Angående "pengars fallande marginalnytta" så är ju den logiken bara tillämpbar för varje enskild individ själv. Du kan aldrig jämföra två människors "nytta"

med varandra. En fattig kanske lägger sin slant i madrassen tills han dör. Den rike kanske finner enorm glädje i att köpa en äkta Picasso. Du behöver

uppfinna en manick som kan mäta människors lycka på ett objektivt materiellt sätt, innan du kommer nånvart med interpersonella nyttoresonemang. Till dess är

det bara grundlösa spekulationer och obevisbart religiöst troende.


+++

Peter Ingestad:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Khepera
Jag har skrivit en ganska ordentlig vederläggning av konceptet "positiva rättigheter" här: http://www.equil.net/?p=545


Vad är relevansen? Jag håller ju helt med dig om att skillnaden mellan "positiv" och "negativ" frihet är falsk. Det "negativa" frihetsbegreppet är det enda

korrekta.

Detta är i själva verket en huvudpoäng i min argumentation från början.

Mitt argument för välfärd har nämlingen ingenting med "positiva rättigheter"att göra. Begreppet "positiva rättigheter" har ingen plats alls i min teorikritik

av liberalismen. Jag moraliserar inte.

Argumentet är i stället att välfärd är nödvändig för att maximera den totala (negativa) friheten. Häri ligger ingen värdering. Det är inte självklart att

friheten bör maximeras. Liberalismens tillkortakommande är tekniskt, inte moraliskt.

Här är det nödvändigt att klarlägga begreppet "tvång". Den reala totala frihet vi konfronterar konkret bestäms som totaliteten av våra möjligheter. Att

inskränka sig till avvisande av tvång utövat av av personliga aktörer blir för snävt. Ofrånkomliga omständigheter inskränker i samma grad totaliteten av våra

möjligheter och därmed vår frihet. Om jag föds blind kan jag inte välja att se. Att denna blindhet inte tillfogats mig av någon aktör är bara helt

irrelevant. Det är inte bara angreppstvång som hotar friheten. Olyckstvång gör det i precis samma grad, ceteris paribus.

Det är inte så kul att förväxlas med den flumvänster jag personligen innerligt avskyr, något jag i en eldig parentes gjorde klart i startinlägget redan. Det

är nämligen så att jag generellt instämmer i den liberala kritiken häremot. Det är bara det, att man inte utan vidare av denna kritik kan härleda ett

avvisande av "vänsterns" politiska målvärden. För dessa finns nämligen andra tungt vägande argument för dessa än vad "vänstern" själv anför. Man kan säga att

de drar en riktig slutsats från felaktiga premisser. Det är ingenting ovanligt.

Jag tror nämligen att "vänstern" egentligen inte vill genomföra de förändringar den pläderar för, eftersom deras egen ställning därigenom skulle hotas. Den

vill bara göra det intrycket. De vill lura människorna. Det handlar i grund och botten om en självvald impotens. Då gäller det att argumentera så svagt det

bara är möjligt och samtidigt höja rösten allt man kan; och precis så är det man faktiskt agerar.

Tror och tror, förresten. Att dylikt bluffande från "vänsterns" representanter är allmän realitet är något jag vet av egen erfarenhet. Låt mig ta ett

exempel. Jag har varit fackligt aktiv i ett LO-förbund. Klubbordförande. Vi på avdelningsnivå en löneförhandling där de särskilda vikariatstilläggen

avskaffades, vilket gav en rejäl lönesänkn ing som emellertid inte syntes i statistiken, emedan denna inte var upplagd för att visa verkliga löner utan bara

nominella sådana. På ett representantskapsmöte påpekade jag detta för förhandlaren själv som beklädde podiet. Han missförstod avsiktligt och låtsades att jag

framfört något slags moraliserande kritik i något slags största allmänhet. Ingen annan av klubbrepresentanterna tog upp tråden. De är nämligen själva inne i

privilegiesystemet och har därför egopistiskt motiv att undvika alltför energiskt driva medlemmarnas intressen för att i stället ägna sig åt bekvämligt

okontroversiella frågor med en högstämd vänsterprofil av metafysisk art, Norrlands älvar, internationell solidaritet o dyl. Det har motparten ingenting emot

naturligtvis, tvärtom.

När jag kom hem till arbetsplatsen och diskuterade saken med mina arbetskamrater var det inga problem. De förstod verkligen alldeles utmärkt allihop; det var

ingen som hade några som helst svårigheter att förstå vad saken handlade om.

+++

Henrik Sundholm:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Argumentet är i stället att välfärd är nödvändig för att maximera den totala (negativa) friheten.

Om du menar en statsfinansierad "välfärd" så blir resonemanget självmotsägande. Man kan inte använda förtryckande medel för att uppnå frånvaron av förtryck.

Om du menar frivilligt finansierad välfärd så blir det bara ett non sequitur. Frihet är inget som behöver underhållas ekonomiskt. Den finns där ändå.

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Det är inte självklart att friheten bör maximeras.

Tja, så länge man inte är en sadist som tycker om att angripa människor, så är det ganska självklart.

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Här är det nödvändigt att klarlägga begreppet "tvång".

Ja, och det har jag gjort.

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Den reala totala frihet vi konfronterar konkret bestäms som totaliteten av våra möjligheter.

Att förväxla frihet med möjligheter är just vad "positiv frihet" handlar om.

+++

Peter Ingestad:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Realizt
Till dess är det bara grundlösa spekulationer och obevisbart religiöst troende.


Det förhållandet vi saknar enkel möjlighet att mäta en given storhet innebär inte att denna inte existerar. Innan vi ger oss in på mätproblem behövs en

grundläggande begreppsanalys. Det är min ambition. Huruvida resultatet av dessa mina bemödanden är grundlösa spekulationer av religiös natur får bedömas bl a

av kvalificerat folk vars intresse för debatten jag försöker mobilisera i hopp om att Flashback skall utvecklas till ett sämhällsväsentligt spetsforum. Den

här sortens svepande, utomordentligt luddiga generaliseringar har sin rekyl; i synnerhet är det hur religionen aktualiserats. På avsnittet

Argumentationsanalys på ettan i Praktisk filosofi fick vi lära oss följande devis: "Utgå från att motståndaren inte är en idiot." Jag har fil kand med tre

spetsar och presterar skyhögt på normativt intelligenstest (WAIS III). Det är inte sannolikt att jag skulle misslyckas så kapitalt med att säga någonting

vettigt. Den som har kompetensen därtill må läsa vad jag faktiskt skrivit och därmed vad jag faktiskt sagt.

Argument ad hominem bemöts relevant ad hominem. Det får man tolerera.

+++

Peter Ingestad:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Khepera
Om du menar en statsfinansierad "välfärd" så blir resonemanget självmotsägande. Man kan inte använda förtryckande medel för att uppnå frånvaron av förtryck.



Varför inte? Det är väl inte ovanligt att med konflikt mellan ändamålets nytta och medlets kostnad aktualiserande ett avvägningsbehov. Resten var påståenden

utan argument och lämnas lämpligen obemötta.

+++
Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Varför inte?

Därför att det självmotsägande inte kan existera. Även om man skulle råka vilja det ibland.


+++


Peter Ingestad:


Det handlar om en motsättning, inte om en logisk kontradiktion. Motsägelselagen utesluter inte värdekonflikter i praxis.


+++

Henrik Sundholm:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Kraxpelax
Det handlar om en motsättning, inte om en logisk kontradiktion. Motsägelselagen utesluter inte värdekonflikter i praxis.

Att försöka uppnå frihet genom ofrihetliga medel är en så tydlig logisk motsägelse att man knappast borde behöva påpeka den. Nu får du trappa upp nivån en

aning, annars orkar jag inte med dig. Sagt i all välmening.

+++

Peter Ingestad:

Citat:
Ursprungligen postat av Khepera
Att försöka uppnå frihet genom ofrihetliga medel är en så tydlig logisk motsägelse att man knappast borde behöva påpeka den. Nu får du trappa upp nivån en

aning, annars orkar jag inte med dig. Sagt i all välmening.


Det uppfattar jag som ett tydligt hot som skall bemötas vederbörligen. Debatten HÄR är för min del avslutad.

+++
Upplagd av Kraxpelax kl. 6.6.08 0 kommentarer 
torsdag, juni 05, 2008

Henrik Sundholms kompis

Henrik Sundholm är debattledare på flashback Han hade en kollega. Denne. Fortsättning följer.
Upplagd av Kraxpelax kl. 5.6.08 0 kommentarer 

bÖgar och sjukdom
Nu när bÖgpesten exploderar i Sverige postar jag följande med Hen rik Sundholm i särskild åtanke.

INTRODUCTION

1. 80% of American HIV cases are homosexuals.

Primary source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services -- Centers for Disease Control. "HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report." July 1993 Vol. 5 No. 2.

Up to 55% of males with nanorectal complaints have gonnorhaea.
80 percent of the patients with syphilis are homosexuals.
Chlamydia is found in 15 percent of asymptomatic homosexual men.
Up to one third of homosexuals have active anorectal herpes simplex virus.

Primary source: Wexner, SD. "Sexually Transmitted Disease of the Colon Rectum and Anus." Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 1990; Vol. 33 (1048-1062).

2. In addition, a host of parasites, bacterial, viral, and protozoan are rampant in the homosexual population.

Primary source: Witte M, Stuntz M, Witte C, Way D. "AIDS, KaposiSarcoma, and the Gay Population." International Journal of Dermatology, 1989; Vol. 28 No.9 (585-586).

3. Oral and Anal intercourse present physicians with surgical as well as medical problems, ranging from anal fissures and impaction of foreign bodies in the rectum to major diagnostic dilemmas.

Primary source: Dritz SK. "Medical Aspects of Homosexuality." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1980; Vol. 302 No. 8 (463-464).

4. homosexual male practices such as "receptive anal and oral intercourse and oral-anal contact, recurrent rectal trauma associated with 'fisting,'" and venereal and parasitic infections, lead to many medical problems including tissue inflammation.

Primary source: Witte M, Stuntz M, Witte C, Way D. "AIDS, KaposiSarcoma, and the Gay Population." International Journal of Dermatology, 1989; Vol. 28 No.9 (585-586).


5. Homosexually active men have frequent intestinal and rectal symptoms resulting from sexually acquired gastrointestinal infections.

Primary source: Surawicz CM, Goodell SE, Quinn TC, Roberts PL, Corey L, Holmes KK, Schuffler MD, Stamm WE. "Spectrum of Rectal Biopsy Abnormalities in Homosexual Men With Intestinal Symptoms." Gastroenterology, 1986; Vol. 91 (651-659).

6. In 1990, a study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association concluding that homosexuals should use condoms to protect against the transmission of hepatitis B.

Primary source: Kingsley LA, Rinaldo CR, Lyter DW Valdiserri RO, Belle SH, Ho M. "Sexual Transmission Efficiency of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 (230-234).

7. "It would seem that anal insertive intercourse is inherently dangerous and should be proscribed."

Harder R, "HBV, HIV, and the Proscription of Intercourse." (Letter). Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 (2625).

8. It's generally objected STD:s hits heteros as well.

CF: Kingsley LA, Rinaldo CR, Ho M. "In Reply." (Letter). Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 (2625).

9, 10, 11. But sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) strike homosexuals at a rate many times higher than that of heterosexuals.

Primary sources:
a. Vincelette J, Baril JG, Allard R. "Predictors of Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea Among Patients Seen by Private Practitioners." Canadian Medical Association, 1991 Vol. 144 No. 6 (713-721).
b. Felman Y, Morrison JM. "Examining the Homosexual Male for Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 238 No. 19 (2046-2047).
c. British Co-operative Clinical Group. "Homosexuality and Venereal Disease in the United Kingdom -- A Second Study." British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 1980 Vol. 56 (6-11).

BACTERIA

Bacteria

12. One study of homosexuals in New York city found that "... 64.3 percent of the [homosexual] men reported a history of gonorrhea and/or syphilis."

Primary source: Koblin BA, Morrison JM, Taylor PE, Stoneburner RL, Stevens CE. "Mortality Trends in a Cohort of Homosexual Men in New York City, 1978-1988." American Journal of Epidemiology, 1992; Vol. 136 No. 6 (646-656).

13, 15, 16. Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease and perhaps the most common STD found in homosexual men.13 Gonorrhea is an inflammatory disease of genital track. In the homosexual communities, this disease has appeared in non-traditional locations. For example, gonorrhea traditionally occurs on the genitals, but recently it has appeared in the rectal region and in the throat.

Primary sources:

American Journal of Epidemiology, 1980; Vol. 112 (836-843).
# Owen W. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Traumatic Problems in Homosexual Men." Annals of Internal Medicine, 1980; Vol. 92 (805-808).

# Janda WM, Bohnhoff M, Morello JA, Lerner SA. "Prevalence and Site-Pathogen Studies of Neisseria meningitides and N gonorrhea in Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 244 No. 18 (2060-2064).

# Rompalo A. "Sexually Transmitted Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Homosexual Men." Medical Clinics of North America, 1990; Vol. 74 No. 6 (1633-1645).

17. Gonorrhea is strongly associated with homosexual behavior at a rate higher than heterosexual behavior. In a study published by the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 1991, "...gonorrhea was associated with urethral discharge ... and homosexuality (3.7 times higher than the rate among heterosexuals).

Primary source: Vincelette J, Baril JG, Allard R. "Predictors of Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea Among Patients Seen by Private Practitioners." Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1991; Vol. 144 No. 6 (713-721).

18. This is especially true of gonorrhea of the pharynx (throat). A study published in the Journal of Clinical Pathology found, "In homosexual men a much higher prevalence of pharyngeal gonorrhoea (15.2 percent; two of the 13) was observed in comparison with heterosexual men (4.1 percent)."

Primary source: Jebakumar SPR, Storey C, Nelson J, Goorney B, Haye KR. "Value of screening for oropharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis infection." Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1995; Vol. 48 (658-661).

19. As pharyngeal gonorrhea results from oral sex with an infected partner, anorectal (anal) gonorrhea is spread through anal sex with a man infected with urethral gonorrhea. Physicians have promoted "safer sex" in an effort to stem the spread of gonorrhea. While for several years statistics seemed to indicate the plan may be working, the numbers began to rise again in the early 1990s. The American Journal of Public Health published a study of Amsterdam STD clinics that found, "After several years of decline, the number and percentage of diagnosed cases of gonorrhea among homosexual and bisexual clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics in Amsterdam started to increase again in 1989. This rise continued in 1990 and 1991."

Primary source: deWit JBF, van den Hoek JAR, Sandfort TGM, Griensven GJP. "Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse Among Homosexual Men." American Journal of Public Health, 1993; Vol. 83 No. 10 (1451-1453).


20. This study mirrors one done in King County, Washington, which yielded similar results.

Primary source: Handsfield H, Schwebke J. "Trends in Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Homosexually Active Men in King County, Washington, 1980-1990." Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1990; October-December (211-215).

21. Unlike its effect on the genitals, when gonorrhea infects the pharynx and rectal regions, it often emerges without symptoms.

Primary source: Janda WM, Bohnhoff M, Morello JA, Lerner SA. "Prevalence and Site-Pathogen Studies of Neisseria meningitides and N gonorrhea in Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 244 No. 18 (2060-2064).

22. And even if it does emerge with symptoms, those symptoms can be easily misinterpreted as simply a sore throat or misdiagnosed as part of a simultaneous ailment such as hemorrhoids.

Primary source: Owen W. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Traumatic Problems in Homosexual Men." Annals of Internal Medicine, 1980; Vol. 92 (805-808).

23. The Journal of the American Medical Association stressed the importance of properly diagnosing these infections: "Detection and treatment of these occult infections are essential, because gonococcal "carriers" represent reservoirs of potential infection in the community.

Primary source: Janda WM, Bohnhoff M, Morello JA, Lerner SA. "Prevalence and Site-Pathogen Studies of Neisseria meningitides and N gonorrhea in Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 244 No. 18 (2060-2064).

24. Primary anal syphilis is marked by anal ulcers that typically appear within two to six weeks of exposure to the spirochet. However, the ulcers may not appear for up to three months after initial exposure. The lesion that appears can be one of two types. One is particularly painful. The other causes little irritation. In the case of the painful variety, it may be mistaken for an anal fissure.

Primary source: # Wexner SD, "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus." Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 1990; Vol. 33 (1048-1062).

25. The Archives of Internal Medicine reported on a study in 1991 that found, "Homosexually active men are significantly more likely to report syphilis and less likely to present with primary syphilis than heterosexual men.

Primary source. Hutchinson CM, Rompalo AM, Reichart MT, Hook EW. "Characteristics of Patients With Syphilis Attending Baltimore STD Clinics." Archives of Internal Medicine, 1991; Vol. 151 (511-516).

26. The British Co-operative Clinical Group noted that homosexuals acquired syphilis at a rate ten times that of heterosexuals.

Primary source: Hutchinson CM, Rompalo AM, Reichart MT, Hook EW. "Characteristics of Patients With Syphilis Attending Baltimore STD Clinics." Archives of Internal Medicine, 1991; Vol. 151 (511-516).

27, 28, 29. Other journals also note a high correlation of homosexuality and syphilis.

Primary sources:

# Felman Y, Morrison JM. "Examining the Homosexual Male for Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 238 No. 19 (2046-2047).

# Catteral RD. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Anus and Rectum." Clinics in Gastoenterology, 1975; Vol. 4, No. 3 (659-669).

# Quinn TC, Lukehart SA, Goodell S, Mkrtichian E, Shuffler MD, Holmes KK, "Rectal Mass Caused by Treponema pallidum: Confirmation by Immunofluorescent Staining." Gastroenterology, 1987; Vol. 82 (135-139).

ENTERIC INFECTIONS

30, 31, 32. An enteric infection is one that involves the intestines, and many of these are caused by various protozoa and bacteria. Decades ago many of these diseases were considered "exotic" diseases acquired through foreign travel or consuming contaminated food or water. However throughout the 1970s and 1980s, medical journals have noted their spread in homosexual communities.

Primary sources:

# Most H. "Manhattan: 'A Tropical Isle?'" Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1968; Vol. 17 (333-354).

# Phillips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, Gelb AM, White MC. "Sexual Transmission of Enteric Protozoa and Helminths in a Venereal-Disease-Clinic Population." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1981; Vol. 305 No. 11 (603-606).

# Koblin BA, Morrison JM, Taylor PE, Stoneburner RL, Stevens CE. "Morality Trends in a Cohort of Homosexual Men in New York City, 1978-1988." American Journal of Epidemiology, 1992; Vol. 136 No. 6 (646-656).


33. One study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported, "At least 80 percent of homosexual men presenting to our sexually transmitted disease clinic with anorectal or intestinal symptoms were infected with one or more sexually transmissible anorectal or enteric pathogens. Such infections were also found in 39 percent of homosexual men presenting to the clinic without intestinal symptoms.

Primary source: Quinn TC, Stamm WE, Goodell SE, Mkrtichian E, Benedetti J, Corey L, Shuffler MD, Homes KK. "The Polymicro Origin of Intestinal Infections in Homosexual Men." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1983; Vol 309 (576-582).

34. The Annals of Clinical Research published a study in 1985 that examined 153 homosexual men. "Intestinal protozoa were found in 91 of the homosexual men, altogether 198 organisms were identified ...

Primary source: Jokipii, L. et.al.. "Frequency, Multiplicity and Repertoire of Intestinal Protozoa in Healthy Homosexual Men and in Patients with Gastrointestinal Symptoms," Annals of Clinical Research 1985; Vol. 17 (57-59).


35. Shigellosis. Shigella is a bacterium that commonly infects the intestinal tract of homosexual men. Infection with this bacterium is marked by diarrhea, fever, nausea, and cramps. In the early 1970s, public health officials noted it as a problem. "The San Francisco Department of Public Health has recognized a venereal outbreak of enteritis due to Shigella Flexneri 2a during the first half of 1974, " Dr. Selma Dritz noted in the New England Journal of Medicine. "Of the more than 50 cases reported, almost 60 percent occurred in young adult men, a majority of whom were habitu鳠of the city's gay community."

Primary source: Jokipii, L. et.al.. "Frequency, Multiplicity and Repertoire of Intestinal Protozoa in Healthy Homosexual Men and in Patients with Gastrointestinal Symptoms," Annals of Clinical Research 1985; Vol. 17 (57-59).


36. Campylobacter is another bacteria that often infects the intestinal tract of homosexual men. One study of 113 patients found, "Campylobacter jejuni was the most common organism in the entire cohort, but Shigella species were most common in homosexual men." While that study did not specifically link campylobacter to homosexuality, other doctors have noted the connection. In 1987 eight physicians wrote Lancet noting, "it seems that the sexual practices of male homosexuals may facilitate colonisation with this organism."

Primary source: Dritz SK, Back AF. "Shigella Enteritis Venereally Transmitted." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1974; November 28 (1194).


37. Amebiasis. An amebiasis is an infection of the large intestine, caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Homosexual populations have been hit hard by various types of amebiasis. The link was noted in the 1970s. "In 1975, 1,235 cases of amebiasis were reported from New York City. This represented 44.5 percent of the total number of cases nationwide," an article in the New York State Journal of Medicine stated. It went on to comment, "Although sexual orientation cannot be assessed from these statistics, a very significant portion of the cases occurring in native New Yorkers were probably within the homosexual community.

Primary source: William DC, Felman YM, Marr JS, Shookhoff HB. "Sexually Transmitted Enteric Pathogens in Male Homosexual Population." New York State Journal of Medicine, 1977; November (2050-2051).


38. G. Lamblia is a flagellate protozoan that causes giardiasis, which is a disease characterized by diarrhea.

Primary source: Merriam-Webster Medical Desk Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Inc. 1993.


39. HarrisonPrinciples of Internal Medicine reports, "In one New York Study, all nontraveled immunocompetent males with giardiasis were, in fact, homosexual."

Primary source: Petersdorf, R.G., et. al. "Giardiasis," Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Tenth Edition, (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company).


40. Both G. Lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica parasites can be transmitted through oral-anal intercourse, as they live in the stool. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that "the most powerful predictors of E. histolytica and G. lamblia infection was homosexuality."


Primary source: Phillips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, Gelb AM, White MC. "Sexual Transmission of Enteric Protozoa and Helminths in a Venereal-Disease-Clinic Population." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1981; Vol. 305 No. 11 (603-606).

41. Interestingly enough, the study went on to note that homosexuality represented a higher risk for these parasites "not because of its unique association with any sexual practices (anilingus was practiced by 17 percent of heterosexuals, 37 percent of bisexuals and 75 percent of homosexuals in our study) but because only in homosexuals is there both a large reservoir of infection (endemic level) and a prevalent mode of transmission."

Primary source: Ibid.

42. In a study of 200 homosexual men and 100 heterosexual men, "Entamoeba histolytica was isolated from 27 percent of the homosexual and 1 percent of the heterosexual men. Giardia lamblia was isolated from 13 percent of the homosexual and 3 percent of the heterosexual men.

Primary source: Keystone JS, Keystone DL, Procter EM. "Intestinal parasitic infections in homoseuxal men: prevalence, symptoms and factors in transmission." Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1980; Vol. 123 (512-514).


43. Other studies reinforce these conclusions for E. histolytica


Primary source: Allason-Jones E, Midel A, Sargeaunt P, Katz D. " Outcome of untreated infection with Entamoeba histolytica in homosexual men with and without HIV." British Journal of Medicine, 1988; Vol. 297 (569-802).

44....and G. Lamblia.

Primary source: Simmon PD. "Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual men." The Practitioner, 1985; Vol. 229 (1003-1008).

VIRUSES

45. Hepatitis A and B can be sexually transmitted and homosexuals are at high risk for both.

Primary source: Andrews H, Wyke J, Lane M, Clay J, Keighley MRB, Allan RN. "Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Male Patients Presenting with Proctisis," Gut, 1988; Vol. 29 (332-335).

46. One study of a community-wide outbreak of Hepatitis A concluded, "Hepatitis A infection among homosexual and bisexual men is associated with oral-anal and digital-rectal intercourse, as well as with increasing numbers of anonymous sex partners and group sex."

Primary source: Henning KJ, Bell E, Braun J, Barker N. "A Community Wide Outbreak of Hepatitis A: Risk Factors for Infection Among Homosexual and Bisexual Men." The American Journal of Medicine, 1995; Vol. 99 (132-136).

47.Another study found that Hepatitis B is easily spread through homosexual contact. The study stated: "These data suggest that HBV [hepatitis B virus] is transmitted 8.6-fold more efficiently than HIV-1 among homosexual men studied ..."

Primary source: Kingsly LA, PH, Rinaldo CR, Lyter DW, Valdiserri RO, Belle SH, Ho M. "Sexual Transmission Efficiency of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 No. 2 (230-234).

48. Hepatitis C appears to be less of a threat to the homosexual community. The Journal on Infectious Disease found, "In a cross-sectional study of homosexual or bisexual men in San Francisco, only 4.6 percent of 735 men were positive for anti-HCV [hepatitis C virus] antibody while 81 percent were positive for any HBV [hepatitis B virus] serologic marker ..."

Primary source: Osmond D, Charlebois E, Sheppard HW, Page K, Winklestein W, Moss AR, Reingold A. "Comparison of Risk Factors for Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Homosexual Men." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1992; Vol. 167 (66-71).

49. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes genital or anal warts and is associated with cancer. For years HPV was linked to vaginal and cervical cancer in women. In recent years, medical studies have noted the spread of HPV in homosexual communities. One study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases stated, "Reports of an association between clinically identified anal warts and homosexual behavior predate the AIDS epidemic and undoubtedly reflect increased exposure of this population to HPV during receptive anorectal intercourse."

Primary source: Kiviat N, Rompalo A, Bowden R, Galloway D, Holmes K, Corey L, Roberts PL, Stamm W. "Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Human Immunodeficiency." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1990; Vol. 162 (358-361).

50. Today, studies suggest a link between HPV and anal cancer in homosexual males -- particularly those who are HIV+. An article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association stated, "These studies indicate that immunosuppressed male homosexuals have a high prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and this population may be at significant risk for the development of anal cancer."

Primary source: Palefsky JM, Gonzales J, Greenblatt RM, Ahn DK, Hollander H. "Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Anal Papillomavirus Infection Among Homosexual Males With Group IV HIV Disease." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 263 No. 21 (2911-2916).

51. an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded: "Anal intercourse may predispose to anal cancer through the transmission of an infection, most probably infection with human papillomavirus."

Primary source: Daling JR, Weiss NS, Hislop G, Maden C, Coates RJ, Sherman KJ, Ashley RL, Beagrie M, Ryan JA, Corey L. "Sexual Practices, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and the Incidence of Anal Cancer." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1987; Vol. 317 (973-977).

52. Herpes simplex is a common STD marked by watery blisters on the genitalia. It can also occur in the anorectal area, primarily in passive homosexual men.

Primary source: Catteral RD. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Anus and Rectum." Clinics in Gastoenterology, 1975; Vol. 4, No. 3 (659-669).

53. Homosexuals suffering from herpes simplex proctitis experience severe anorectal pain and may have difficulty urinating.

Primary source: Goodell SE, Quinn TC, Mkrtichian E, Shuffler MD, Holmes KK, Corey L. "Herpes Simplex Virus Proctisis in Homosexual Men." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1983; Vol. 308 (868-871).

54. While Herpes is a disease that affects both homosexuals and heterosexuals, a side-by-side comparison of heterosexual males to homosexual males shows that homosexual men are at a higher risk.
The Journal of the American Medical Association found that "among men, report of any lifetime homosexual activity was associated with an elevated risk for HSV-2 [herpes simplex virus - 2]."

Primary source: Seigel, D, Golden E, Washington E, Morse SA, Fullilove MT, Catania JA, Marin B, Hulley SB. "Prevalence and Correlates of Herpes Simplex Infections: The Population-Based AIDS in Multiethnic Neighborhoods Study." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1992; Vol. 268 No. 13 (1702-1708).

55. The link between homosexuality and herpes simplex-2 has also been noted in other journals.

Primary source: Simmons PD. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Homosexual Men." The Practitioner, 1985; Vol. 229 (1003-1008).

56. Cytomegalovirus is a virus that commonly infects homosexual men and can be serious when the patient suffers immunosuppressed conditions such as AIDS. This virus can infect both heterosexuals and homosexuals, but again, homosexuals seem to suffer from cytomegalovirus at a much higher rate. A study published in the American Journal of Medicine showed,"... heterosexual men in a sexually transmitted disease clinic have a substantially lower prevalence of cytomegalovirus seropositivity than do homosexual men."

Primary source: Collier AC, Meyers JD, Corey C, Murphy VL, Roiberts PL, Handsfield H. "Cytomegalovirus Infection in Homosexual Men." American Journal of Medicine, 1987; Vol. 82 (593-600).

57. In fact, an article published in the British Journal of Venereal Disease noted "Sexual orientation was shown to be the most important determinant of antibody to CMV [cytomegalovirus] in this population."

Primary source: Mindel A, Southerland S. "Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in homosexual and heterosexual men attending an STD Clinic." British Journal of Venereal Disease, 1984; Vol. 60 (189-92).

58. In a population that represents the majority of AIDS cases, CMV is particularly frightening. A study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases reported, "DMAC [disseminated Mycobacterium avium] and CMV are causing substantial and increasing morbidity among AIDS patients."

Primary source: Katz MH, Hessol NA, Buchbinder SP, Hirozawa A, O'Malley PO, Holmberg SD. "Temporal Trends of Opportunistic Infections and Malignancies in Homosexual Men with AIDS." Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1994; Vol. 170 (198-202).

5. HIV AIDS

59. 1987, the federal government embarked upon an education campaign to protect the nation against the spread of AIDS. It was called "America Responds to AIDS." This media campaign flooded the airwaves with the horrifying message that "anyone" could get AIDS. The risk of contracting AIDS through heterosexual vaginal intercourse is many times lower than anal intercourse or IV drug use. Consider the odds: The problem was that although that message may be technically true, it is terribly deceptive. AIDS remains primarily a disease of homosexuals and IV drug users. Homosexuals and IV drug users make up more than 80 percent of AIDS cases in the United States.

Primary source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services -- Centers for Disease Control. "HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report." July 1993 Vol. 5 No. 2.

60. Dr. Walter Dowdle, a virologist at the Centers for Disease Control involved with the education campaign, told the Wall Street Journal, "As long as this was seen as a gay disease or, even worse, a disease of drug abusers, that pushed the disease way down the ladder" in priority in Americans' minds.60


Primary source: Bennett A, Sharpe A. "Health Hazard: AIDS Fight Is Skewed by Federal Campaign Exaggerating Risks," The Wall Street Journal, May 1, 1996.

61.The New York Times reported with tabloid sensationalism: "In a development that reflects the changing demographic face of the AIDS epidemic in this country, heterosexual transmission accounted for the largest proportionate increase in AIDS cases reported last year..."

Primary source: Ibid.

62. The latest statistics from the reveal that homosexuals and IV drug abusers make up 83 percent of all AIDS cases in America. Heterosexual contact accounts for only 8 percent of the cases, and nearly half (47 percent) of heterosexuals who have contracted AIDS were the sexual partners of drug abusers.

Primay source: Altman L, "AIDS Cases Increase Among Heterosexuals," The New York Times, March 11, 1996.

VI. CANCERS AND TUMORS

64. One article in the New England Journal of Medicine commented, "Our study lends strong support to the hypothesis that homosexual behavior in men increases the risk of anal cancer: 21 of the 57 men with anal cancer (37 percent) reported that they were homosexual or bisexual, in contrast to only one of 64 controls."

Primary source: Daling JR, Weiss NS, Hislop G, Maden C, Coates RJ, Sherman KJ, Ashley RL, Beagrie M, Ryan JA, Corey L. "Sexual Practices, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and the Incidence of Anal Cancer." New England Journal of Medicine, 1987; Vol. 317 No. 16 (973-937).

65. The Journal of the American Medical Association also published similar findings: "Epidemiological studies have shown that risk factors for anal cancer include homosexuality, history of receptive anal intercourse, presence of anal condylomata, and smoking."

Primary source: Palefsky JM, Gonzales J, Greenblatt RM, Ahn DK, Hollander H. "Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Anal Papillomavirus Infection Among Homosexual Males With Group IV HIV Disease." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 263 (2911-2916).

66. And the International Journal of Cancer stated, "Being single and having practised anal intercourse appears to be associated with anal cancer and case reports have suggested a recent increase in the number of cases of anal cancer.

Primary source: Melbye M, Palefsky J, Gonzales J, Ryder L, Henrik N, Bergmann O, Pindborg J, Biggar R. "Immune Status as a Determinant of Human Papillomavirus Detection and its association with anal epithelial abnormalities" International Journal of Cancer,

67, 68. B Other studies have yielded the same conclusions.

Primary source:

# Frisch M, Melbye M, Moller H. "Trends in Incidents of Anal Cancer in Denmark." British Medical Journal, 1993; Vol. 306 (419-422).

# Wexner SD, Milson JW, Dailey TH. "The Demographics of Anal Cancers are Changing." Dis. Colon and Rectum, 1987; Vol. 30 (942-946).

69. Kaposi's Sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-related cancer that affects the mucous membranes and the skin of its victims. It is marked by reddish-brown or bluish tumors. In years past it was primarily a benign disease that affected older men in the Mediterranean regions. In recent years it has earned a reputation for being a deadly disease in AIDS patients. - Homosexuals' sexual behavior places them at high risk for this disease. The International Journal of Dermatology explains why: "In this high risk group [the gay male population], the predominant portal of entry of free and cell-bound HIV as well as the brunt of associated cofactors and opportunistic infections can be traced to both ends of the gastrointestinal tract (mouth and anus) and also the genitalia, which happen to be common sites for KS lesions in addition to their lymphatic watersheds."

Primary source: Witte M, Stuntz M, Witte C, Way D. "AIDS, KaposiSarcoma, and the Gay Population." International Journal of Dermatology, 1989; Vol. 28 No. 9 (585-586).

70. AIDS reports: "According to our data, homosexual men had a significantly higher risk of progression to AIDS and shorter survival compared with IDU [IV drug users] and other categories. In a multivariate analysis the increased risk was found to be independent of demographic and clinical characteristics but was accounted for by the higher probability of developing Kaposi's sarcoma."

Primary source: Vella S, Giuliano M, Floridia M, Chiesi A, Tomino C, Seeber A, Barcherini S, Bucciardini R, and Mariotti S. "Effect of Sex, age and transmission category on the progression to survival of zidovudine-treated symptomatic patients." Current Science Ltd. AIDS, 1995; Vol. 9 (51-56).

71. The Journal of the American Medical Association noted the difficulty in treating this disease in the mid-1980s, "Kaposi's Sarcoma as currently seen in young, homosexual men is less responsive to chemotherapy, and in many cases displays a more aggressive, rapidly progressive course.

Primary source: Cole H. "AIDS Associated Disorders Pose Complex Therapeutic Challenges." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1988; Vol. 252 (1987-1988).

72. One study published in the Annuls of Medicine noted the connection between homosexual AIDS patients and Hodgkin disease. The study concluded, "An excess incidence of Hodgkin disease was found in HIV-infected homosexual men."

Primary source: Hessol N, Katz MH, Liu JY, Buchbinder DP, Rubino CJ, Holmberg SP. "Increased Incidence of Hodgkin Disease in Homosexual Men with HIV Infection." Annals of Internal Medicine, 1992; Vol. 117 No. 4 (309-311).

73. The Journal of Clinical Oncology published a study that further supports a connection between homosexual male AIDS patients and Hodgkin disease.
Primary source: Lyter DW, Bryant J, Thackeray R, Rinaldo CR, Kingsley LA. "Incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus -- Related and Nonrelated Malignancies in a Large Cohort of Homosexual Men." Journal of Clinical Oncology, 1995; Vol. 13 No. 10 (2540-2546).


VIII DRUGS / ALCOHOL ABUSE

74. "Substantially higher proportions of the homosexual sample used alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine than was the case in the general population."

Primary source:

# Rankow EJ. "Lesbian Health Issues for the Primary Care Provider." Journal of Family Practice, 1995; Vol. 40 No. 5 (486-492).

# Bradford J, Ryan C, Rothblum ED. "National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for Mental Health Care." Journ


75, 76. When gay rights activists concede to the health facts regarding their lifestyle they argue that homosexuals simply need to be taught how to perform their sex acts safely. However, despite innumerable education efforts, the homosexual male population remains plagued by disease.
For afew years, activists had some statistics to back up this philosophy as rates of gonorrhea and syphilis dropped after education efforts. However, homosexuals, even after receiving education, did not sustain their "safe" activities for very long. A study conducted in Amsterdam and another study conducted in Washington state found a drop in gonorrhea and syphilis for several years in the 1980s. In both studies, that trend was followed by a marked increase in the rate of these diseases in the homosexual population, while the rate in the heterosexual population continued to fall.

Primary sources.

# # deWit JBF, Van den Hoek JAR, Sandfort TGM, Griensven GJP. "Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse Among Homosexual Men." American Journal of Public Health, 1993; Vol. 83 No. 10 (1451-1453).

# Van Den Hoek JAR, Van Grienven GJP, Coutinho RA. "Increase in Unsafe Homosexual Behavior" (Letter). Lancet, 1990; Vol. 336 (179-180).


77. One study published in Nursing Research noted that lesbians experience alcohol problems at a rate three times that of American women as a whole. The study also found: "Like most problem drinkers, 32 (91%) of the participants had abused other drugs as well as alcohol, and many reported compulsive difficulties with food (34%), codependency (29%), sex (11%), and money (6%). Forty-six percent had been heavy drinkers with frequent drunkenness; ..."

Primary source: Hall J, "Lesbians Recovering from Alcoholic Problems: An Ethnographic Study of Health Care Experiences." Nursing Research, 1994; Vol. 43 No. 4 (238-244).

78. Homosexual activists would argue that this population suffers from a higher rate of drug and alcohol problems because society will not accept their sexual orientation. However, a psychological study of nearly 2,000 lesbians from all 50 states found that most lesbians (57 percent) considered money the biggest worry in their life. The study went on to state, "Only 12 percent of respondents indicated that they were concerned about people knowing that they were lesbian."

Primary source: Bradford J, Ryan C, Rothblum ED. "National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for Mental Health Care." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1994; Vol. 62 No. 2 (228-242).

IX. "SAFE SEX"

79, 80. A study conducted in Amsterdam and another study conducted in Washington state found a drop in gonorrhea and syphilis for several years in the 1980s. In both studies, that trend was followed by a marked increase in the rate of these diseases in the homosexual population, while the rate in the heterosexual population continued to fall.

Primary sources:

# deWit JBF, Van den Hoek JAR, Sandfort TGM, Griensven GJP. "Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse Among Homosexual Men." American Journal of Public Health, 1993; Vol. 83 No. 10 (1451-1453).

# Van Den Hoek JAR, Van Grienven GJP, Coutinho RA. "Increase in Unsafe Homosexual Behavior" (Letter). Lancet, 1990; Vol. 336 (179-180).

81. One study published in the British Journal of Medicine stated, "This study provides evidence of continuing unsafe sexual behavior among homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV-1 attending genitourinary medicine clinics up to the end of 1993." The study further pointed out, "This is consistent with other data indicating an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, within the male homosexual or bisexual community in England and Wales between 1988 and 1990."

Primary source: Catchpole MA, Mercey DE, Nicoll A, Rogers PA, Simms I, Newham J, Mahoney A, Parry JV, Joyce C, Gill ON. "Continuing Transmission of Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Patients Infected With HIV-1 Attending Genitourinary Medicine Clinics in England and Wales." British Medical Journal, 1996; Vol. 312 (539-542).

82. While it appears clear that homosexual men have a difficult time sustaining "safe" sexual behavior, the inevitable question is why? Medical and psychological experts have developed several explanations. Some homosexual men believe that once they have established a monogamous relationship, they aren't at risk. The American Journal of Public Health published a study in 1990 that found, "Being in a monogamous gay relationship was associated with higher risk sex throughout the entire study."

Primary source: McKusick L, Coats TJ, Morin SF, Pollack L, Hoff C. "Longitudinal Predictors of Reductions in Unprotected Anal Intercourse Among Gay Men in San Francisco: The AIDS Behavioral Research Project." American Journal of Public Health, 1990: Vol. 80 No. 8 (978-983).

83. Another theory is that the few years of decline in the rates of HIV and other STD infections have led homosexual men to let down their guard. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported, "Because of declining incidence of STD and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, some homosexually active men may have relaxed behaviors regarding sexual safety."

Primary source: Handsfield HH, Krekeler B, Nicola, RM. " Trends in Gonorrhea in Homosexually Active Men -- King County, Washington, 1989." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1989; Vol. 262 No. 20 (2985-2986).

84. A journal known as Sexually Transmitted Diseases developed a more psychological explanation. Dr. Edward W. Hook III wrote, "After all, if higher risk behaviors for HIV/STD remain desirable albeit dangerous for some, their status as 'forbidden fruit' might paradoxically serve as a stimulus rather than a deterrent to those practices."

Primary thought: Hook, EW. "Behavioral Relapse Among Homosexually Active Men: Implications for STD Control." Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1990; October/December (161-162).

85. The simple ineffectiveness of condoms likely also contributed to the spread of disease. A study published in Social Science and Medicine found that the rate of condom effectiveness in protecting against HIV infection is only 69 percent. The study noted, "Thus, efficacy may be much lower than commonly assumed ..."

Primary source: Weller S. "A Meta-Analysis of Condom Effectiveness in Reducing Sexually Transmitted HIV." Soc Sci Med, 1993; Vol. 36 No.12 (1635-1644).

IX BORN OR BRED

86. One of the most often touted studies was conducted by Simon LeVay. His study, published in Science in 1991, noted a difference in a brain structure called the hypothalamus when evaluating homosexual and heterosexual men. LeVay found that in the specimens he studied, the hypothalamus was generally larger in heterosexual men than in homosexual men. Therefore he concluded that these findings "suggest that sexual orientation has a biologic substrate."

Primary source: LeVay S. "A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual and Homosexual Men." Science, 1991 Vol. 253 (1034-1037).

87. While LeVay's study received top-notch billing in the media, it was anything but conclusive. An analysis of the study and its methodology reveals some notable weaknesses. The first problem, which LeVay himself readily admits, is the fact that all 19 of his homosexual subjects had died of complications associated with AIDS. Therefore the difference in the hypothalamus might well be attributed to the AIDS rather than homosexuality. LeVay attempted to compensate for the weakness by including a few heterosexuals who died of AIDS complications in the heterosexual sample. However, LeVay did not know for sure whether all subjects in his heterosexual sample were indeed heterosexual; all of these subjects were simply "presumed heterosexual." Moreover, Dr. William Byne argued in Scientific American that "[LeVay's] inclusion of a few brains from heterosexual men with AIDS did not adequately address the fact that at the time of death virtually all men with AIDS have decreased testosterone levels as the result of the disease itself or the side effects of particular treatments.... Thus it is possible that the effects on the size of the INAH3 [hypothalamus] that he attributed to sexual orientation were actually caused by the hormonal abnormalities associated with AIDS."

Primary source: Byne E. "The Biological Evidence Challenged." Scientific American, 1994; May (50-55).

88. Finally another weakness of LeVay's study is the fact that even in his sample there were "exceptions" -- that is, there were some homosexuals who had larger hypothalamus structures than some of the heterosexuals examined. Even LeVay admits that these exceptions "hint at the possibility that sexual orientation, although an important variable, may not be the sole determinant of INAH3 [hypothalamus] size."

Primary source: LeVay S. "A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual and Homosexual Men." Science, 1991 Vol. 253 (1034-1037).

89. LeVay is an open homosexual, and his interview with Newsweek appears to indicate he had an agenda from the outset. LeVay lost his gay partner to AIDS, an event that made him re-evaluate what he was doing with his life. As a result, he took on this project. LeVay believes America must be convinced that homosexuality is determined biologically. "It's important to educate society," he told Newsweek. "I think this issue does affect religious and legal attitudes."

Primary source: Gelman D, Foote D, Barrett T, Talbot M. "Born or Bred." Newsweek, 1992; February 24 (46-53).

90. Hamer's results are often misunderstood. Many believe that the study found an identical sequence (Xq28) on the X chromosome of all homosexual brothers. In reality, what it found was matching sequences in each set of brothers who were both homosexual. Dr. Byne argues that in order to prove anything by this study, Hamer would have had to examine the Xq28 sequence of gay men's heterosexual brothers. Hamer insisted that such an inclusion would have confounded his study. Byne responded, "In other words, inclusion of heterosexual brothers might have revealed that something other than genes is responsible for sexual orientation."

Primary source: Byne E. "The Biological Evidence Challenged." Scientific American, 1994; May (50-55).

91. Hamer's motives are also questionable. Although Hamer's research is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, his work has had little to do with cancer. This study alone took $419,000 of the institutetaxpayer-backed funds, according to the Washington Times.

Primary source: Price J. "Federal Cancer Lab Hunts for Gay Gene." The Washington Times, 1994; April 3.

92. One of Hamer's researchers told the Times that homosexuality is "not the only thing we study," but it is "a primary focus of study." Hamer reportedly stated that he has pushed for an Office of Gay and Lesbian Health inside the National Institutes of Health. And he testified in opposition to Colorado's Amendment 2. Sen. Robert C. Smith (R-NH) accused the doctor of "actively pursu[ing] ... a gay agenda."

Primary source: Ibid.

93. Another study that has advanced the theory that homosexuality is a biological phenomenon is the famed "Twin Study" by J. Michael Bailey and Richard C. Pillard. Bailey and Pillard examined identical and fraternal twin brothers and adopted brothers in an effort to establish a genetic link to homosexuality. The study results yielded some statistics that seem to support the hypothesis and other statistics that appear to refute it. Fifty-two percent of the identical twins shared the same homosexual sexual orientation while only 22 percent of fraternal twins fell in the same category. This finding appears to support the argument for biology since identical twins share the same genes. However, the rate of non-twin conformity should mirror that of fraternal twins. In the Bailey and Pillard study, the rate was only 9.2 percent. And the rate in adopted brothers -- which, if the biological hypothesis were true, should have been even lower than non-twin brothers -- was actually higher (11 percent).

Primary source: Bailey JM, Pillard RC. "A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation." Archives of General Psychiatry, 1991; Vol. 48 (1089-1096).

94. In his article analyzing the medical evidence supporting a biological cause of homosexuality, Dr. Byne noted other twin studies. He wrote, "Without knowing what developmental experiences contribute to sexual orientation ... the effects of common genes and common environments are difficult to disentangle. Resolving this issue requires studies of twins raised apart."

Primary source: Byne E. "The Biological Evidence Challenged." Scientific American, 1994; May (50-55).

95. Other physicians have also criticized the study for overvaluing the genetic influence.

Primary source: Lidz T, "A Reply to 'A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation.'" [Letter]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1993; Vol. 50 (240)

96. Dr. Byne's arguments might lead some activists to label him a "homophobe." He is, in reality, quite the contrary. Byne readily advocates societal acceptance of homosexuality, but nevertheless concludes, "Most of the links in the chain of reasoning from biology to social policy [regarding homosexuality] do not hold up under scrutiny."

Primary source: Ibid.

X CONCLUSION

Conclusion

Homosexuality has become an increasingly prevalent part of modern society. It has infiltrated our schools, our news media, our entertainment media and may soon redefine our concept of marriage.
However, homosexuality is by its very nature dangerous to those who practice it. And society is doing homosexuals a disservice when it endorses and promotes homosexuality as normal. In doing so, it is encouraging these Americans to engage in self-destructive behavior.

Homosexuality is an issue of morality. But it is also an fundamental issue of public health. The evidence is clear. American government, educational systems, and courts should note the facts presented in this paper and advance public policy and curricula that encourage sound behavior rather than offering special protection and endorsement to a behavior that threatens individuals as well as public health.

The future of America hangs in the balance. If society is not willing to address the homosexual issue on moral grounds, then the medical evidence alone should be enough to convince the fair-minded that homosexuality is incompatible with good public health.

Primary source:

http://www.homosexuellt.com/infosida/show_article.asp?Idnr=207

This is actually a Swedish site. It is the secondary source of all primary sourced bold passages of this thread. I have merely made a "reader's digest" of it, working the references off sequentially, regardless of how important, or how supportive of my personal views they may have been.
Upplagd av Kraxpelax kl. 5.6.08 0 kommentarer 

Anonym sa...

Du kanske ska titta på den här sidan :)

http://henriksundholmskritiker.wordpress.com/

Anonym sa...

make your own viagra free sample viagra cheap viagra canada generic viagra cheap sublingual viagra generic viagra india women taking viagra viagra herb alternative pfizer viagra cialis levia and viagra buy viagra soft online herbal viagra fda on viagra cheap viagra nz

Anonym sa...

The reason I ask is because I need to upload the 2.2 software/update. And my iphone takes forever to back up.



________________
[url=http://unlockiphone22.com]unlock iphone[/url]

Anonym sa...

Is there any difference between a apple iphone and a 3G one? Which one is better? And what's so good about iPhone?



________________
[url=http://unlockiphone22.com]unlock iphone[/url]